Retracted: This article has been retracted.

Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children.

PubWeight™: 36.93‹?› | Rank: Top 0.01% | All-Time Top 10000

🔗 View Article (PMID 9500320)

Published in Lancet on February 28, 1998


A J Wakefield1, S H Murch, A Anthony, J Linnell, D M Casson, M Malik, M Berelowitz, A P Dhillon, M A Thomson, P Harvey, A Valentine, S E Davies, J A Walker-Smith

Author Affiliations

1: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Study Group, University Department of Medicine, Royal Free Hospital and School of Medicine, London, UK.

Articles citing this

(truncated to the top 100)

Misconduct accounts for the majority of retracted scientific publications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2012) 5.89

Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine and the incidence of autism recorded by general practitioners: a time trend analysis. BMJ (2001) 5.40

Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study. Br J Gen Pract (2001) 4.60

Second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: questionnaire survey of health professionals. BMJ (2001) 4.50

Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees. CMAJ (2010) 3.57

Ethical debate: Vaccination against mumps, measles, and rubella: is there a case for deepening the debate? How safe is MMR vaccine? BMJ (2001) 3.44

Retracted science and the retraction index. Infect Immun (2011) 3.35

Communication and miscommunication of risk: understanding UK parents' attitudes to combined MMR vaccination. BMJ (2003) 3.25

The discomfort of patient power. BMJ (2002) 3.19

Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ (2002) 3.01

Diagnosis of autism. BMJ (2003) 2.98

Classical peer review: an empty gun. Breast Cancer Res (2010) 2.97

MMR vaccination and autism 1998. BMJ (1998) 2.89

Vaccine adverse events: causal or coincidental? Lancet (1998) 2.82

Concerns about immunisation. BMJ (2000) 2.80

Increase in congenital rubella occurrence after immunisation in Greece: retrospective survey and systematic review. BMJ (1999) 2.64

Countering antivaccination attitudes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2015) 2.37

Validation of the diagnosis of autism in general practitioner records. BMC Public Health (2004) 2.22

The lessons of MMR. Lancet (2004) 2.16

Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism. Ecological studies cannot answer main question. BMJ (2001) 2.15

Incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism: a population-based study. Pediatrics (2009) 2.12

Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses. Clin Infect Dis (2009) 2.10

Microbe hunting. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev (2010) 2.10

Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease. Mol Pathol (2002) 2.07

The two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunisation schedule: factors affecting maternal intention to vaccinate. Br J Gen Pract (2000) 2.07

Parental confidence in measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: evidence from vaccine coverage and attitudinal surveys. Br J Gen Pract (2002) 2.00

Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine. Lancet (1998) 1.94

Negativity towards negative results: a discussion of the disconnect between scientific worth and scientific culture. Dis Model Mech (2014) 1.90

Factors associated with uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and use of single antigen vaccines in a contemporary UK cohort: prospective cohort study. BMJ (2008) 1.87

Perceptions of childhood immunization in a minority community: qualitative study. J R Soc Med (2008) 1.80

Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. BMJ (2002) 1.69

How society should respond to the risk of vaccine rejection. Hum Vaccin Immunother (2013) 1.67

A translational framework for public health research. BMC Public Health (2009) 1.67

Financial costs and personal consequences of research misconduct resulting in retracted publications. Elife (2014) 1.59

Etiology of infantile autism: a review of recent advances in genetic and neurobiological research. J Psychiatry Neurosci (1999) 1.54

Impact of a pertussis epidemic on infant vaccination in Washington state. Pediatrics (2014) 1.48

Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study. PLoS One (2008) 1.48

Current views and advances on Paediatric Virology: An update for paediatric trainees. Exp Ther Med (2015) 1.44

Do children who become autistic consult more often after MMR vaccination? Br J Gen Pract (2001) 1.44

Constructing target product profiles (TPPs) to help vaccines overcome post-approval obstacles. Vaccine (2009) 1.43

Cost effectiveness of a web-based decision aid for parents deciding about MMR vaccination: a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care. Br J Gen Pract (2014) 1.42

Reporting of MMR evidence in professional publications: 1988-2007. Arch Dis Child (2009) 1.41

Language and other regression: assessment and timing. J Autism Dev Disord (2003) 1.40

Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine. Lancet (1998) 1.39

Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories. Am J Public Health (2008) 1.38

Letting the daylight in: Reviewing the reviewers and other ways to maximize transparency in science. Front Comput Neurosci (2012) 1.37

Vaccination and its adverse effects: real or perceived. Society should think about means of linking exposure to potential long term effect. BMJ (1998) 1.34

Are healthcare workers' intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? A systematic review. BMC Public Health (2013) 1.34

Prevalence of autism and parentally reported triggers in a north east London population. Arch Dis Child (2003) 1.29

The MMR vaccine and autism: Sensation, refutation, retraction, and fraud. Indian J Psychiatry (2011) 1.29

Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology. J Clin Immunol (2003) 1.28

MMR vaccine: the continuing saga. BMJ (2001) 1.27

Brief report: parental reporting of regression in children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord (2004) 1.27

Vaccination safety update. Dtsch Arztebl Int (2008) 1.26

Is there a 'regressive phenotype' of Autism Spectrum Disorder associated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine? A CPEA Study. J Autism Dev Disord (2006) 1.26

MMR vaccine--worries are not justified. Arch Dis Child (2001) 1.22

Cytokine regulation of epithelial permeability and ion transport. Gut (1999) 1.22

Spontaneous mucosal lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms: mucosal immune activation and reduced counter regulatory interleukin-10. J Clin Immunol (2004) 1.21

Hygiene hypothesis in inflammatory bowel disease: a critical review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol (2008) 1.21

A broken trust: lessons from the vaccine--autism wars. PLoS Biol (2009) 1.20

A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology. BMC Public Health (2001) 1.20

Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine. Lancet (1998) 1.20

Ethnicity as a correlate of the uptake of the first dose of mumps, measles and rubella vaccine. J Epidemiol Community Health (2007) 1.17

Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine. Lancet (1998) 1.17

Understanding and determining the etiology of autism. Cell Mol Neurobiol (2009) 1.15

The rise (and fall?) of parental vaccine hesitancy. Hum Vaccin Immunother (2013) 1.14

Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the terminal ileum in children with Crohn's disease. Gut (2003) 1.13

Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions. Dialogues Clin Neurosci (2012) 1.13

Autism: an emerging public health problem. Public Health Rep (2003) 1.12

Parents' champions vs. vested interests: who do parents believe about MMR? A qualitative study. BMC Public Health (2007) 1.11

A Canadian national survey of attitudes and knowledge regarding preventive vaccines. J Immune Based Ther Vaccines (2003) 1.11

Influenza vaccines: from surveillance through production to protection. Mayo Clin Proc (2010) 1.09

The MMR question. Lancet (2000) 1.09

Future infectious disease threats to Europe. Am J Public Health (2011) 1.09

A cluster randomised controlled trial of a web based decision aid to support parents' decisions about their child's Measles Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Vaccine (2013) 1.08

Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public's response to vaccination. Hum Vaccin Immunother (2012) 1.08

Scientific dissent and public policy. Is targeting dissent a reasonable way to protect sound policy decisions? EMBO Rep (2012) 1.08

What's new in autism? Eur J Pediatr (2008) 1.07

Prevalence and onset of regression within autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analytic review. J Autism Dev Disord (2013) 1.03

When to retract? BMJ (2003) 1.03

Vaccination policies: individual rights v community health. We can't afford to be half hearted about vaccination programmes. BMJ (1999) 1.03

MMR: where are we now? Arch Dis Child (2007) 1.02

A statement by the editors of The Lancet. Lancet (2004) 1.01

Gastrointestinal factors in autistic disorder: a critical review. J Autism Dev Disord (2005) 1.00

Power and persuasion in the vaccine debates: an analysis of political efforts and outcomes in the United States, 1998-2012. Milbank Q (2014) 0.99

Developmental biology of the enteric nervous system: pathogenesis of Hirschsprung's disease and other congenital dysmotilities. Semin Pediatr Surg (2004) 0.98

The Inherent Drawbacks of the Pressure to Publish in Health Sciences: Good or Bad Science. F1000Res (2015) 0.98

Fraud in scientific research - birth of the Concordat to uphold research integrity in the United Kingdom. J R Soc Med (2013) 0.96

Varicella vaccination in Europe: are we ready for a universal childhood programme? Eur J Pediatr (2007) 0.96

Social media and the empowering of opponents of medical technologies: the case of anti-vaccinationism. J Med Internet Res (2013) 0.96

MMR vaccination and autism 1998. There is no causal link between MMR vaccine and autism. BMJ (1998) 0.95

Measles control--can measles virus inhibitors make a difference? Curr Opin Investig Drugs (2009) 0.95

Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autistic spectrum disorder: A hypothesis only. Paediatr Child Health (2001) 0.94

The contribution of vaccination to global health: past, present and future. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci (2014) 0.93

Brief report: immune factors in autism: a critical review. J Autism Dev Disord (2002) 0.93

MMR Catch up Campaign: reasons for refusal to consent. Arch Dis Child (2006) 0.92

Prevalence and incidence rates of autism in the UK: time trend from 2004-2010 in children aged 8 years. BMJ Open (2013) 0.92

Story and science: how providers and parents can utilize storytelling to combat anti-vaccine misinformation. Hum Vaccin Immunother (2013) 0.92

TV programme raises fresh allegations about MMR doctor. BMJ (2004) 0.92

Stem cell therapy for autism. J Transl Med (2007) 0.91

Articles by these authors

Changing physician performance. A systematic review of the effect of continuing medical education strategies. JAMA (1995) 26.76

No magic bullets: a systematic review of 102 trials of interventions to improve professional practice. CMAJ (1995) 22.08

Evidence for the effectiveness of CME. A review of 50 randomized controlled trials. JAMA (1992) 20.08

Closing the gap between research and practice: an overview of systematic reviews of interventions to promote the implementation of research findings. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Review Group. BMJ (1998) 19.37

Heart rate variability: origins, methods, and interpretive caveats. Psychophysiology (1997) 7.81

Tumour necrosis factor alpha in stool as a marker of intestinal inflammation. Lancet (1992) 6.66

Pathogenesis of Crohn's disease: multifocal gastrointestinal infarction. Lancet (1989) 5.70

The community hospital: a three-year study. Br Med J (1976) 4.64

Effect of disodium cromoglycate on exercise-induced asthma. Br Med J (1968) 3.49

Heart-rate turbulence after ventricular premature beats as a predictor of mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Lancet (1999) 3.38

Hepatocytes from non-hepatic adult stem cells. Nature (2000) 3.27

Location of tumour necrosis factor alpha by immunohistochemistry in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Gut (1993) 3.25

Interleukin-2- and interferon-gamma-secreting T cells in normal and diseased human intestinal mucosa. Immunology (1993) 3.20

The diagnosis of coeliac disease. A commentary on the current practices of members of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). Arch Dis Child (1979) 3.16

DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV on the bacterial chromosome: quinolone-induced DNA cleavage. J Mol Biol (1996) 3.08

Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha in childhood chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Gut (1991) 2.98

Tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells in the intestinal mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology (1994) 2.85

Granulomatous vasculitis in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology (1991) 2.72

Retracted Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorders. Am J Gastroenterol (2000) 2.70

Phytoremediation of soil metals. Curr Opin Biotechnol (1997) 2.60

Hepatic angiomyolipoma: a clinicopathologic study of 30 cases and delineation of unusual morphologic variants. Am J Surg Pathol (1999) 2.53

Dietary management of gastroenteritis in Britain. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) (1988) 2.49

Immunoglobulins and dietary protein antibodies in childhood coeliac disease. Gut (1970) 2.44

Risk stratification for arrhythmic events in postinfarction patients based on heart rate variability, ambulatory electrocardiographic variables and the signal-averaged electrocardiogram. J Am Coll Cardiol (1991) 2.42

PGP 9.5--a new marker for vertebrate neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Brain Res (1983) 2.41

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease in childhood. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) (1982) 2.29

The prognostic value of the QT interval and QT interval dispersion in all-cause and cardiac mortality and morbidity in a population of Danish citizens. Eur Heart J (1998) 2.28

Cows' milk protein intolerance: a possible association with gastroenteritis, lactose intolerance, and IgA deficiency. Br Med J (1976) 2.25

Short- and long-term reproducibility of QT, QTc, and QT dispersion measurement in healthy subjects. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol (1994) 2.21

Use of 51-CrCl-3 in the diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy. Gut (1967) 2.16

Gliadin and reticulin antibodies in childhood coeliac disease. Lancet (1983) 2.11

Colonoscopic polypectomy in children. Br Med J (1980) 2.11

Differential expression of CD25 (interleukin-2 receptor) on lamina propria T cells and macrophages in the intestinal lesions in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Gut (1990) 2.09

Interobserver study of liver histopathology using the Ishak score in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Liver (1999) 2.01

Syndrome of intractable diarrhoea with persistent villous atrophy in early childhood: a clinicopathological survey of 47 cases. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr (1998) 1.97

PGP 9.5, a new marker for human neuroendocrine tumours. Histopathology (1985) 1.97

Cytokines in stools of children with inflammatory bowel disease or infective diarrhoea. J Clin Pathol (1993) 1.96

The potential for QT prolongation and proarrhythmia by non-antiarrhythmic drugs: clinical and regulatory implications. Report on a policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J (2000) 1.92

Components of heart rate variability--what they really mean and what we really measure. Am J Cardiol (1993) 1.91

Why interferon beta 1b was licensed is a mystery. BMJ (1996) 1.91

Classification and nomenclature of somatostatin receptors. Trends Pharmacol Sci (1995) 1.90

New immunofluorescent blood test for gluten sensitivity. Arch Dis Child (1981) 1.88

An appraisal of the histopathological assessment of liver fibrosis. Gut (2006) 1.87

Total colonoscopy in children. Arch Dis Child (1982) 1.86

Diagnostic role of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr (2004) 1.86

Core promoter mutations and genotypes in relation to viral replication and liver damage in East Asian hepatitis B virus carriers. J Infect Dis (1999) 1.84

Proposal for standardized criteria for the diagnosis of benign, borderline, and malignant hepatocellular lesions arising in chronic advanced liver disease. Am J Surg Pathol (1993) 1.84

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease in the young. Compr Ther (1982) 1.83

IgA anti-gliadin antibodies in coeliac disease. Clin Exp Immunol (1981) 1.78

Incremental cholesterol reduction with ezetimibe/simvastatin, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in UK General Practice (IN-PRACTICE): randomised controlled trial of achievement of Joint British Societies (JBS-2) cholesterol targets. Int J Clin Pract (2010) 1.78

Evidence of persistent measles virus infection in Crohn's disease. J Med Virol (1993) 1.76

QBEnd/10: a new immunostain for the routine diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma. J Pathol (1990) 1.76

Decline of hypernatraemia as a problem in gastroenteritis. Arch Dis Child (1980) 1.71

Response to autoimmune enteropathy to cyclosporin A therapy. Gut (1991) 1.71

The potential for QT prolongation and pro-arrhythmia by non-anti-arrhythmic drugs: clinical and regulatory implications. Report on a Policy Conference of the European Society of Cardiology. Cardiovasc Res (2000) 1.70

The immunolocalization of protein gene product 9.5 using rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antibodies. Br J Exp Pathol (1988) 1.67

Small intestinal enteropathy with epithelial IgG and complement deposition in children with regressive autism. Mol Psychiatry (2002) 1.67

Macrophage heterogeneity in normal colonic mucosa and in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut (1988) 1.67

Disruption of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in intestinal inflammation. Lancet (1993) 1.64

Clinical comparison between glucose and sucrose additions to a basic electrolyte mixture in the outpatient management of acute gastroenteritis in children. Arch Dis Child (1976) 1.63

Mucosal healing and a fall in mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA induced by a specific oral polymeric diet in paediatric Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther (2000) 1.61

Transjugular liver biopsy: how good is it for accurate histological interpretation? Gut (2006) 1.61

Infantile gastroenteritis: a clinical study of reovirus-like agent infection. Lancet (1975) 1.59

Comparison of the predictive characteristics of heart rate variability index and left ventricular ejection fraction for all-cause mortality, arrhythmic events and sudden death after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol (1991) 1.58

Wernicke's encephalopathy and central pontine myelinolysis associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. BMJ (1992) 1.58

Patients treated with unfractionated heparin during open heart surgery are at high risk to form antibodies reactive with heparin:platelet factor 4 complexes. J Lab Clin Med (1996) 1.58

Methotrexate and liver fibrosis in people with psoriasis: a systematic review of observational studies. Br J Dermatol (2014) 1.57

Intestinal sugar permeability: relationship to diarrhoeal disease and small bowel morphology. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr (1985) 1.57

Changes in intraepithelial lymphocyte subpopulations in coeliac disease and enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma (malignant histiocytosis of the intestine). Gut (1989) 1.56

Cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent children. J Clin Pathol (1985) 1.56

Protracted diarrhoea of infancy: evidence in support of an autoimmune variant. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) (1986) 1.55

The value of proximal small intestinal biopsy in the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhoea. Arch Dis Child (1992) 1.54

Remission induced by an elemental diet in small bowel Crohn's disease. Arch Dis Child (1987) 1.53

Gamma/delta T cells and the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Clin Exp Immunol (1991) 1.51

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and life threatening chronic diarrhoea. Gut (1991) 1.51

Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in an adenoma: value of QBend 10 immunostaining in diagnosis of liver cell carcinoma. Histopathology (1996) 1.49

Small hepatocellular carcinomas in cirrhotic explant livers: identification by macroscopic examination and lipiodol localization. Hepatology (1997) 1.48

Autoimmune enteropathy with distinct mucosal features in T-cell activation deficiency: the contribution of T cells to the mucosal lesion. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr (1999) 1.47

Autoimmunity in diarrhoeal disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr (1985) 1.47

Hepatitis B virus reinfection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Serological and clinical implications. J Hepatol (1992) 1.46

The initial care of newborn infants and subsequent hay fever. Allergy (2000) 1.46

Dexamethasone and infection in preterm babies: a controlled study. Arch Dis Child (1990) 1.45

Hypernatraemia and gastroenteritis. Lancet (1977) 1.45

Longitudinal variation in hepatitis C virus (HCV) viraemia and early course of HCV infection after liver transplantation for HCV cirrhosis: the role of different immunosuppressive regimens. Gut (1999) 1.44

Genomic heterogeneity in synchronous hepatocellular carcinomas. Gut (1999) 1.44

Update of the International Banff Schema for Liver Allograft Rejection: working recommendations for the histopathologic staging and reporting of chronic rejection. An International Panel. Hepatology (2000) 1.44

Hepatitis B virus DNA levels, precore mutations, genotypes and histological activity in chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat (2000) 1.43

Do patients with neurally mediated syncope have augmented vagal tone? Am J Cardiol (1993) 1.41

Neutrophils in NSAID-induced injury. Aliment Pharmacol Ther (1999) 1.41

A diagnostic challenge: acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis or pustular psoriasis due to terbinafine. Clin Exp Dermatol (2011) 1.41

Influence of the infarct site on the identification of patients with ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction based on the time-domain and spectral turbulence analysis of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram. Clin Cardiol (1995) 1.41